Carlos Antonio Lozada, supreme urban commander of Colombias Farc rebels, is poised to lead his organisation into politics. In this exclusive interview he speaks about war, making peace and meeting victims
The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (Farc) stands apart from other Latin American leftwing guerrilla movements founded since the 1960s because it has outlived them all well into the 21st century and remains in control of vast tranches of territory. But it is also from a different mould: almost entirely rural its leaders have not been intellectuals, such as Che Guevara, but peasants, fighting a peasant war in the countryside. The Farcs violence has, however, had an impact on the cities, and during the 1990s Colombia even feared that the guerrillas were poised to take the capital, Bogot.
The groups presence in urban areas has been led by a man who most observers say will be the new figurehead of Farc in politics, Carlos Antonio Lozada (left). Lozada is from a generation younger than the guerrillas supreme commanders, and though he also fought in the jungle with them he is distinct in that he hails from Colombias second city of Cali. He spent 19 years in Colombias cities as Farcs supreme urban commander.
During recent months the Observer has interviewed all Farcs commanders, in depth, for a long-term project, including Lozada, Farcs coming man, who hopes to take the organisation into its next conflict, a political fight, a war without weapons, but with words. Here, in this interview extract, Lozada talks exclusively about the road to the Havana peace deal.
The Farc has been accused of perpetrating many atrocities during the 50-year war how do you respond?
We are trying to come out of a 50 years war. War is a denial of the human being. War is not human. Irrespective of its causes, however just, war in itself isnt human.
What we have said is that, in this process, we have to assume our responsibilities and we have shown that we are ready to do so. The agreement on the issue of victims, that is the way Colombia society has to go forward in order to build reconciliation. We are ready to assume that part of the responsibility that corresponds to us.
We repent everything, not just the war but things that we have done in life. But beyond my personal case, one has to put this into political context. Personally, yes of course, there are always things to repent. We would like to rewind the movie, not to have been part of those situations.
We made decisions that in the heat of the moment we thought were fair and necessary, because otherwise there would have been great consequences for own forces. And then, in hindsight, one does see things differently. But you have to see them in the context that they actually happened.
You are one of the few Farc leaders who spent considerable time in both rural and urban areas. You spent 19 years working as Farcs urban leader. Describe your role, and life.
The life of the urban guerrilla is different. There is permanent tension, permanent pressure. One has the feeling that, if you make a mistake at any time, you could pay the price with either [loss of] freedom or death. You have to act all the time, faking all the time, because you have to live a normal life in front of neighbours and friends, all the while remembering that you are a clandestine militant. This makes huge demands and requires a huge amount of discipline. Even without a uniform, you have to be conscious that it is a revolution and you cannot be irresponsible. Do what any ordinary person would do, but have self-control. You can get drunk, but you have to know where and with whom.
In the jungle the life is limited in terms of physical limits the jungle is geographically limiting. In the city the life is emotionally and sentimentally limited. In order to be clandestine, you must limit yourself to a very limited number of friends and be careful not to let those relationships meddle too much in your personal life, because that could turn into a problem.
I changed houses constantly. In every new apartment one arrives with a new, different identity. Many times I thought I was going to get caught.
What will Farcs political future look like what will you offer the country as a political proposition?
When the Farc emerge in an open, legal, political fight you will see an organisation that is a reflection of how we think of Colombians. If you go to the Pacific coast, you will see Afro Colombians; if you go to the Cauca, those are indigenous people; if you go to the Meta, they are people from the Llanos, and if you go to the Farcs Northern Block, they are Caribbean.
Embracing the rainbow of Colombians will involve a very wide political project. We are betting on having a space in the political spectrum that runs from the democratic forces to the left. It is not going to be a Marxist movement; it will be a wide offer, where different groups can converge.
We need to dismantle the neoliberal model and get rid of corruption. We are going to have points of agreement with other groups, and we aspire to achieve a democratic left alternative.